||Ground: Chên, K'an, Tui
Shih / The Army
Shih / The Army
Above K'UN THE RECEPTIVE, EARTH
Below K'AN THE ABYSMAL, WATER
hexagram is made up of the trigrams K'an, water, and K'un, earth, and
thus it symbolizes the ground water stored up in the earth. In the same
way military strength is stored up in the mass of the
people–invisible in times of peace but always ready for use as a
source of power. The attributes of the two trigrams are danger inside
and obedience outside. This points to the nature of an army, which at
the core is dangerous, while discipline and obedience must prevail
the individual lines, the one that controls the hexagram is the strong
nine in the second place, to which the other lines, all yielding, are
subordinate. This line indicates a commander, because it stands in the
middle of one of the two trigrams. But since it is in the lower rather
than the upper trigram, it represents not the ruler but the efficient
general, who maintains obedience in the army by his authority.
THE ARMY. The army needs perseverance
And a strong man.
Good fortune without blame.
army is a mass that needs organization in order to become a fighting
force. Without strict discipline nothing can be accomplished, but this
discipline must not be achieved by force. It requires a strong man who
captures the hearts of the people and awakens their enthusiasm. In
order that he may develop his abilities he needs the complete
confidence of his ruler, who must entrust him with full responsibility
as long as the war lasts. But war is always a dangerous thing and
brings with it destruction and devastation. Therefore it should not be
resorted to rashly but, like a poisonous drug, should be used as a last
justifying cause of a war, and clear and intelligible war aims, ought
to be explained to the people by an experienced leader. Unless there is
a quite definite war aim to which the people can consciously pledge
themselves, the unity and strength of conviction that lead to victory
will not be forthcoming. But the leader must also look to it that the
passion of war and the delirium of victory do not give rise to unjust
acts that will not meet with general approval. If justice and
perseverance are the basis of action, all goes well.
In the middle of the earth is water:
The image of THE ARMY.
Thus the superior man increases his masses
By generosity toward the people.
water is invisibly present within the earth. In the same way the
military power of a people is invisibly present in the masses. When
danger threatens, every peasant becomes a soldier; when the war ends,
he goes back to his plow. He who is generous toward the people wins
their love, and a people living under a mild rule becomes strong and
powerful. Only a people economically strong can be important in
military power. Such power must therefore be cultivated by improving
the economic condition of the people and by humane government. Only
when there is this invisible bond between government and people, so
that the people are sheltered by their government as ground water is
sheltered by the earth, is it possible to wage a victorious war.